Malt gives beer its colour, flavour and contributes to the mouth feel of the beer. Malt is grain that has been tricked into coming to life (and then killed) in order to release it’s wonderful sugar. This sugar in combination with yeast is turned into the alcohol in beer.
Malting is the process of converting barley or other cereal grains into malt, for use in brewing, distilling and other less important life pursuits.
Malts are typically divided into either base or specialty malts. Base malts do the majority of the work in terms providing the fermentable sugar for the brew and specialty malts provide much of the flavour and colour. For instance our ‘tell me how it ends pale ale’ uses pale malt as its base (about 90% by weight) and crystal malt (about 10% by weight). Despite being only 10% the crystal malt gives the beer much of its colour and the important caramel flavours. The list of malts used for a brew is often collectively referred to as the grain bill.
Base malts include Pilsen (pilsener) malt, pale malt, wheat malt, Maris Otter, 2-Row and 6-Row. Specialty malts include Vienna malt, crystal malt, chocolate malt… There are hundreds of malts each with different characteristics depending on what you are after. Specific information can be found here on a large range of malts. This link may help you find out about a specific malt or give you a sense how malts can vary.
Good question. In Australia (at least) you can largely thank the craft beer scene for bringing hops to our attention. Before that most Australian brewers used just one type of hop called ‘pride of ringwood’ which was bred by CUB in the 1950s – think Foster’s lager. Now there are more hop types available to a brewer than they can poke an … empty schooner at – too forced? yep.
Hops are the female flower (of a hop vine) which secrete an acid called lupulin (photos below). It is this acid that is prized as it helps with the beer’s head, gives it the bitterness that we all love, act as a natural preservative and give it both flavour and aroma. Hops are closely related to marijuana and only grow in latitudes between 35 to 55 degrees north and south – they do grow in Canberra.
I’ll soon be harvesting our home grown hops (all American cascade) so stay tuned for more beer school and more beer drinking soon.
Fun, yes but only if you like hard work. Easy, not really. Like a lot of things it can be as complicated as you want but even at its most basic you are still looking at a solid initial three hours to get it into the fermenter, a week or two in the fermenter, an hour or two bottling then two weeks until you can drink it. But the rewards are worth it!
Brewing has the following practical steps:
– Everything before the fermenter (mashing, sparging, boiling)
– Fermenting (sitting in plastic or metal container turning into alcohol)
– Bottling and conditioning (putting in bottle with some sugar and capping)
If you eventually move to all grain (like the one I did today) your tasks and time are roughly as follows for the first step:
1) Heat 20 litres of water to 50-60 degrees C. Add grain and keep at temp for an hour to an hour and a half. (2 hours plus a bit of prep time)
2) Sparge (wash grain) with 30 odd litres of water at 75 degrees C. (30 min plus an extra 30 carting and heating water. Spent grain to chooks).
3) Boil wort (left over liquid) for 90 minutes. Adding hops at various points throughout. (Hour and a half). Good point to eat cake and maybe have a beer. Also good time to sterilise fermenters and other tools.
4) Chill wort as quickly as possible. You need to get it from 100 degrees C down to the temperature at which you can add yeast (15-24 degrees C) as fast as possible to the stop the risk of infection. With an immersion chiller this takes about 30 minutes.
5) Rack chilled wort to fermenter and add yeast (10-20 minutes).
6) Clean up and have another beer (up to an hour).
At this point your brew is ready to start becoming beer, but it isn’t drinkable for a few weeks. But that is another story…
To recap – lagers use a lager yeast, ferment at lower temperatures and for longer (compared to ales) and get their name by being stored for a period of time (kind of like wine).
So are there different sorts of lagers? Why yes. The major types include Pilsener, American lager, German lager and European lager. Examples of well known lagers include Stella, Beck’s and Asahi.
A really useful diagram which shows how all these styles relate is at the below link:
With a Bohemian Pilsener fermenting and active investigation into this whole cave thing, Oktoberfest could be on the cards at the brewery!
Cave well, cave often.
These days (and by that I mean the best part of the last 500 years) there is no real difference and the words are often used interchangeably. In the Ye Olde days beer was made with hops, while ale wasn’t. Ale (without hops) was a sweet drink without any of the bitterness to balance it – not great. Now hops is used universally causing the confusion.
While all ales are beers, not all beers are ales. The beers that aren’t ales are lagers – confused? The difference between ales and lagers is principally the yeast used in each. Ales use a yeast that ferments at the top of the vessel (between 15-21 degrees celsius) and generally produce big flavours.
Lagers use a different yeast that ferments at the bottom of the vessel (between 2-10 degrees celsius) and generally create a cleaner, crisper taste. Lager comes from the German word meaning “to store”. Hence lagers ferment for longer than ales ideally under the controlled conditions of a fridge or a cave if you have one.
How good would it be to own a cave.
Beer is alcoholic drink made from fermented grain. It has four basic ingredients:
Water – comes from the sky, lives in rivers, lakes and taps.
Malt – grain (typically barley) that has started to sprout and then been put in a kiln to kill it and provide the sugar.
Hops – a green flower that provides the bitterness, flavour and aroma to the beer (also acts as a preservative).
Yeast – a fungi that eats sugar and as a waste product creates alcohol (and carbon dioxide).
Other stuff can be in added to beer but this is all you need to make magic happen.